Cisco-Certified Network Associate Guide

Blue and Yellow Phone Modules

Networking is the allocation of data and resources between two or more computers. We need some devices and technologies to create networks by interlinking and communicating with each other. CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) is a renowned certification provided by the company named ‘Cisco Systems’ for computer network engineers related to information technology (IT). This type of certification is valid for all sorts of engineers such as fresh network engineers, network administrators, network specialists, and network support engineers. It supports becoming aware of networking concepts such as IP addressing, Network security, and OSI models. This article highlights the guidelines for CCNA examination and also provides some information related to networking techniques that how to create a reliable network to get SPOTO CCIE certification Training.  


Cisco, the internationally renowned organization for manufacturing and marketing network tools, provides information technology (IT) certification called CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate). This certification is considered as associate-level Cisco certification which supports a broad range of subjects such as IP/TCP model, Switches and routers, LAN/WAN, Network services (arp, tracert, ping), NAR & ACLs, VLAN and trunking, WLAN, IP addressing and sub netting, OSPF (Routing protocols) and automation (Shubho & Islam, 2020; Mbise, 2021).

Cisco-Certified Network Associate Certification-1998 

CCNA (Cisco-Certified Network Associate) is renowned as the king of switching, routing, and security. It is generally estimated that in excess of 1 million people have been awarded by CCNA certificates from the time when it was first launched in 1998 (Shubho, & Islam, 2020). This certification can improve networking skills and provide information that how different range of networks topologies perform together to create a global network. CCNA program was introduced to provide an outline related to Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) and Cisco hardware, in addition to internetworking in all-purpose. 

Cisco exams have altered many times in regards to altering Information Technology (IT) trends. For instance, Cisco broadcasted an updated certified program ‘Consolidated and updated Associate level training and certification’ in the year of 2020. Cisco has associated prior many types of CCNA (Cisco-Certified Network Associate) with common CCNA certification (Mbise, 2021). The content of the CCNA exam is exclusive and offers multiple ranges of training methods comprising the published books by “Cisco Press”, classroom, and online courses accessible under the heading “Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices” and also offer by SPOTO CCIE lab

CCNA Examination Criteria 

CCNA examination basically assesses and evaluates the knowledge and skills of participants related to installing and fixing, operate and troubleshooting to modify small-sized into medium-sized initiative branch networks. The CCNA exam covers a wide spectrum of fundamentals such as network access and its basics, security fundamentals, IP services and connectivity, automation, and programmability (Kabir et al., 2019).  In order to achieve CCNA certification, the candidates must pass the single exam by CCNA 200-301. The total number of questions in the exams can vary however nearby 120. While the passing score for the CCNA exam can vary but should be in-between 800 to 850 out of 1000 total marks. CCNA Composite Exam may comprise of multiple-choice questions with single or multiple correct answers, fill in the blanks, drag and drop, router stimulations (Saleem et al., 2020). 

Types of Networking Technologies 

The network can be described as a scheme of interconnected devices such as a connection between two computers that can easily communicate by some mutual standards. These interconnected devices can exchange their data and resources such as document files and printers and also services (Stiller, 2020).  

Local Area Network (LAN) is generally used to designate a network of devices in a limited area such as offices, buildings, houses etc. (Rastogi, 2019). This kind of network is ordinarily proficient in attaining high data transfer (up to 10 Gbps) at a low cost. This distinctive SOHO (small office/home office) LAN comprises PCs, routers, printers, switches, and cabling that links all these devices. Moreover, the most renowned LAN technologies include Ethernet, FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), and Token Ring (Stiller et al., 2020). Most of the LAN networks practice IP/TCP for communication. Likewise, the Twisted-pair cabling is also used in Local Area Network (Gusev, Ristov, & Donevski, 2014). 

In contrast to this, Ethernet is considered as by far the most widespread wired LAN technology. It explains signaling, wiring, connectors, protocol rules, and frame formats etc. Most innovative LANs also assist Wireless LAN (WLAN) networking technology, clear by Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. Wireless LANs only use radio waves instead of using cables or wires to interconnect between devices (Nencioni & Karstad, 2020).

Personal Area Network (PAN) refers as computer network systemized around a person. This type of network is used to communicate between several devices such as personal digital assistants, printers, phones, and laptops that are near to approach. We can custom such type of network to transfer and share the data such as files and photos between various devices. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is another type of network that typically covers a larger area as compared to LAN. For instance, a network that links two offices at different places within a city, a locality area and so on. The fourth type of network is Wide Area Network (WAN) that covers a broad geographic area such as across cities, countries as well as continents. WAN is produced by linking the two other networks MANs and LANs. Such broad networks across long distances are typically connected with satellite radio links, optical fiber cables, and microwave radio links (Rashid, Alkababji, & Khidhir, 2021).  

Figure 1: Types of Computer Networks Source: Rashid, Alkababji, & Khidhir (2021).

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